ACWD’s Water Sources & Supplies

Sources & Supplies

ACWD currently has three primary sources of water supply:

The SWP and SF supplies are imported into the District service area through the South Bay Aqueduct and Hetch-Hetchy Aqueduct, respectively. Local supplies include fresh groundwater from the Niles Cone Groundwater Basin (underlying the District service area), desalinated brackish groundwater from portions of the groundwater basin previously impacted by seawater intrusion, and surface water from the Del Valle Reservoir.

The primary source of recharge for the Niles Cone Groundwater Basin is from percolation of runoff from the Alameda Creek watershed. To a lesser degree, a portion of ACWD's SWP supplies are also used for local groundwater percolation. Infiltration of rainfall and applied water also contribute to local groundwater recharge.

Water Supply Planning

The District develops comprehensive, long-term planning documents to manage our water supply and ensure we meet current and future demands.

Integrated Resources Plan (PDF)
Urban Water Management Plan
Water Supply Reliability Fact Sheet (PDF)

Regional Water Supply Efforts

The Bay Area Regional Reliability (BARR) Partners include the following:

  • Alameda County Water District
  • Bay Area Water Supply and Conservation Agency
  • Contra Costa Water District
  • East Bay Municipal Utility District
  • Marin Municipal Water District
  • San Francisco Public Utilities Commission
  • Santa Clara Valley Water District
  • Zone 7 Water Agency.

The BARR Partners have joined forces to leverage existing facilities and, if needed, build new ones to bolster regional water supply reliability.
BARR website


Before being supplied to ACWD's customers, the source water supplies are treated to meet and surpass all state and federal drinking water standards. ACWD operates one surface water treatment plant that treats SWP and local surface water from Del Valle Reservoir. The Newark Desalination Facility treats brackish groundwater to remove salts and other impurities, and the Blending Facility blends San Francisco water with local fresh groundwater (with higher hardness) to provide a blended supply with lower overall hardness.

Meeting Demands

Over the FY1999/00-FY2009/10 period, 27% of the total in-District water demands (distribution system and groundwater system demands) have been met by State Water Project supplies, 19% from San Francisco Regional supplies and 54% from local supplies.

When considering only the distribution system demands (potable water), over the same time period, about 35% of the District's distribution system water supply was from the State Water Project. This water was either treated at one of ACWD's two water treatment plants or used to recharge local aquifers. Water from the San Francisco Regional System provided approximately 25% of the distribution system water supply and local supplies accounted for the balance (about 40%) of the distribution system supplies.